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Citation Resources

A guide to bibliographic citation formats and citation management tools.

General Note: URL Addresses with ""

When citing a web source or including a DOI link in a citation, do not include Fisher's "" information in the link.

Though you will need "" when you access full-text from the library while you are off-campus, you should not include it in your citations.

    • If your citation includes this initial part, remove it, through ?url=, so your link starts with
    • Remove the, and change the "-" dash between "doi" and "org" into a period.
  • In both cases, the link in your citation should read

Articles in Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, etc. (Print & Online)

AuthorLastName, F. M. (Date of Publication). Article title: Article subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pages.

Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL as shown below.

The 7th edition standardizes DOI formatting to begin with (pp. 299-300).


Website says DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.03.005
Include in reference:

Article with page numbers
Weiss-Faratci, N., Lurie, I., Neumark, Y., Malowany, M., Cohen, G., Benyamini, Y., Goldbourt, U., & Gerber, Y. (2016). Perceived social support at different times after myocardial infarction and long-term mortality risk: A prospective cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 26(6), 424-428.
Article with article number or other electronic locator
Mohammed, E. E. A., & Fateen, E. M. (2019). Identification of three novel homozygous NAGLU mutations in Egyptian patients with Sanfilippo Syndrome B. Meta Gene, 21, Article 100580.

The 7th edition standardizes DOI formatting to begin with (pp. 299-300).


Website says DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.03.005
Include in reference:

Print Article
Fetherston, J. D., Lillard, J. W., & Perry, R. D. (1995). Analysis of the pesticin receptor from Yersinia pestis: Role in iron-deficient growth and possible regulation by its siderophore. Journal of Bacteriology, 177(7), 1824-1833.
Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Here is an example of a newspaper where page numbers are part of a section, making a combined page number of "D1."

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal, D1-D2.
Online Article

Most journal articles published online since 2000 have a DOI, but magazine and newspaper articles may not. If you can't find a DOI, insert the internet address (URL).

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).

This is a brave new world: articles are published on the web before they've been put into a journal issue.

Look for an "Available online" date, and you may see Xs in place of volume or issue number. Also look for the phrase "Advance Online Publication."

These are "official" publications, but citation material may be incomplete. If an issue number is available by the time your paper is complete, include it as in a normal journal article citation.

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

Before it is officially published, an article may appear online as an "author accepted manuscript" or an article "in press". This means it was accepted for publication, but may be slightly different than the officially published version.

Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Kahn, J., Wellman, R., Cook, A. J., Johnson, E., Erro, J., Delaney, K., & Deyo, R. A. (in press). A Comparison of the effects of 2 types of massage and usual care on chronic low back pain: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine.

Per NIH, "pre-prints are complete and public drafts of scientific articles that have not yet been peer reviewed." These may or may not have been submitted to a journal. Unlike accepted manuscripts or articles in press, there may be significant differences from the final version of an article both in content and format. Wherever possible, use and cite the finalized version of a work.

Brown, J., Wakim, P. G., Faraco, C., Saugar-Lanchas, C., Lungu, C., Mendoza-Puccini, C., Rosenberg, E., & Wright, C. (2021). Time to publication of clinical trials funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. PubMed Central.

For additional examples, see pages 317-321 in the Publication Manual (2019) or the APA Website.

Books (Print & Online)

General Format
AuthorLastName, F. M. (Year). Book title (edition if applicable). Publisher.
Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography (2nd ed.). Harcourt Brace.
Ebook with DOI
General Format:
AuthorLastName, F. M. (Year). Book title (edition if applicable). Publisher.
Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.
Ebook without DOI, from most research databases

If you find an ebook in a library research database, don't include the database name or the URL address. The reason for this is that most ebooks and articles are available through multiple databases, and the URL you found it through may not be usable by readers with different databases available to them (APA Manual, p. 296).

General Format:
AuthorLastName, F. M. (Year). Book title. Publisher.
Haladyna, T. M., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2013). Developing and validating test items. Routledge.
Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. CyberAge Books.
Example: Group as Author

Often, a book with no author or editor will be "written by" an organization. In such cases, use the organization's name as an author.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

In this example, the author is also the publisher. In such cases, APA does not require you to repeat it as a "publisher."

For help formatting group authors' names, see the APA Style website.

Example: Really, No Author

If no organization acts as the author, begin the citation with the book's title.

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). JIST Works.

When citing the whole multivolume work:

Wright, S. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume in a multivolume set:

Wright, S. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies (Vol. 2). University of Chicago Press.

Usually, in an edited volume, you should cite the individual chapter or essay you're using, not the whole book. In such cases, use the example above for "Chapter in a Book."

When citing a whole book which has editors rather than authors:

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage Foundation.

In books with an editor or editors, and chapters by separate authors, you will often cite only one chapter, like these examples:

Willson, R. F., Jr. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Greenwood Press.
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association.

When a book's chapters were not written by separate authors (that is, the book is "authored," not "edited"), cite the whole book in your reference list even if you are only referring to one chapter. Include the chapter reference or page numbers within the in-text citation only. See page 326 of the Publication Manual for more information.

Other Online Sources

This common citation type covers a lot of what is cited online that is not associated with a larger category (e.g., journal, newspaper, etc.). APA's 7th Edition Manual states that "if you cite multiple pages from a website, [you] create a reference for each" (p. 350).

General Format
AuthorLastName, F. M., & AuthorLastName, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of section or document. Website Name. https://....
Friend, J. L. (2017, July 8). Caregiver stress: Don't forget self-care. Mayo Clinic.
Example: Group as Author

Webpages often do not list an author. The document may be cited as though it were written by an organization or company, rather than a person. This is called a "group author." In the example below, the group author's name is also the broader website's title, so the latter has been omitted from the citation.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, August 2). Hospital support for breastfeeding: Preventing obesity begins in hospitals.

See also the APA Style page for referencing authors, as these situations can get tricky!

Example: No Date
Sheridan-Gonzalez, J. (n.d.). Unlearning violence. New York State Nurses Association.

Most things you cite will be pages, sections, or documents on a website. These may be cited through a citation similar to that in the section above.

According to guidelines from APA, full websites are not to be listed in reference list, but rather "include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses" (p.350). For more information, see the APA Style Reference Examples page.

Wikipedia Article or other Reference Entry with Archived Versions
Behaviorism. (2019, November 2). In Wikipedia.
Getting a link to an archived Wikipedia article:

Cite an archived version of an entry or article in a reference work like Wikipedia whenever possible. Doing so allows others to find the same version you saw.

To access an archived version in Wikipedia, select "View History" when on the entry, and then the time and date of the version you used. The address (URL) at the top of the browser will be a link you can cite.

Screenshot of the link to View History in Wikipedia Screenshot of the link to a specific revision's page in Wikipedia (click the most recent date) Screenshot of a specific revision's page in Wikipedia
Online Reference Work without Archived Versions of Articles

If such a link is not characterized as a permanent link, include both the URL and retrieval date (Publication Manual, p. 329).

When an online reference work is continuously updated, and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." (no date) as the year of publication and include a retrieval date.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Trebuchet. In Merriam-Webster online dictionary.Retrieved November 12, 2019, from
Reference Entry with an Author or Authors
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

If a reference entry has an author, it will look much more like a chapter in an edited book.

Example from a database (e.g., ProQuest Dissertations and Theses)
Huang. C. (2014). Understanding novice users' help-seeking behavior in getting started with digital libraries: Influence of learning styles. (Publication No. 3646824) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Publication Number in these citations is now called a "Dissertation/thesis number" in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Example from a university's dissertation repository
Lotzar, E. (2018). Employee soft skills and organizational culture: An exploratory case study. [Doctoral dissertation, St. John Fisher College]. Fisher Digital Publications.
General Format
AuthorLastName, F. M. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of post or up to first 20 words [Descriptions of audiovisuals] [Description of post]. Site Name. http://www.xxxx
National Libraries of Scotland [@natlibscot]I. (2019, October 28). Acid. Snow. Stone. Ripped. Studded. Shredded. Graffiti. Designer. These are all 1980s denim styles. Find out more in our #Talking1980s essay [GIF with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.
r/librarians. (2017, December 1). Are there aspects of a career in libraries that perpetuate the librarian stereotypes? [Online forum comment]. Reddit.

(If only author's screen name or handle is available, use that for the author's name.)

AuthorLastName, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of post. Blog Title. http://xxxx
Glazer, G. (2019, October 23). Hocus pocus, practicle magic: Which books should our faviroite movie witches read. Biblip File.
You can find nursing-specific examples for drug and clinical care entries, DynaMed, Lexicomp, and UpToDate on the Nursing research guide.

Audiovisual Media

General Format
Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Translation if title in another language] [Film]. Production Company; Second Production Company. URL
Poitras, L. (Director). (2014). Citizenfour [Film]. Starz; Anchor Bay.
Benigni, R. (Director). (1997). La vita è bella [Life is beautiful] [Film]. Miramax.
  • The "author" of a film should be the director. If you do not know the director, you can include another person in a similar role whose name appears with the work and would make it easy for a reader to identify this film.
  • For foreign language films, include the translation in square brackets.
  • You do not need to provide information about how you viewed the film (eg. streaming online, on DVD).
Entire Series
General Format:
Creator, A. A. (Creator). (Year–Year). TV series title [TV series]. Production Company.
Collins, D. (Creator). (2018–present). Queer eye [TV series]. Netflix.
Gelbart, L. (Creator). (1972-1983). M*A*S*H [TV series]. 20th Century Fox.
  • The author should be the series creator.
  • If the series airs over multiple years, show the beginning year and ending year span. If the series is still airing, replace the ending year with the word "present" as in the example.
Single Episode
General Format:
Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, A. A. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In A. Executive Producer, B. Executive Producer, & C. Executive Producer (Executive Producers), TV series title. Production Company; Second Production Company.
Gilligan, V. (Writer & Director). (2008, January 20). Pilot (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In V. Gilligan, & M. Johnson (Executive Producers), Breaking Bad. High Bridge Entertainment; Gran Via Productions; Sony Pictures Television.
General Format
Uploader, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the video [Video]. YouTube. url
Tank and the Bangas. (2018, October 17). We're Tank and the Bangas! [Video]. YouTube.
Art Camp (2019, October 30). Thom Yorke: Last I heard (...he was circling the drain) [Video]. Vimeo.
  • The author is the account that uploaded the video, even if they didn't create it.
  • Cite a quotation from a YouTube Video
General Format
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of photograph or infographic [Description]. Website Title where Photograph or Infographic was Retrieved. Url
Strauss, Z. (2013). Daddy tattoo [Photograph]. International Center of Photography.
Winter, D. (2009). [Shardrick Johnson, 6, wandered off the line outside the Columbia Convention Center in South Carolina, where Senator Obama would soon be speaking]. The Pulitzer Prizes.
USDA. (2018). Let's all eat healthy [Infographic]. ChooseMyPlate.
  • For images that are untitled, you should include a description in square brackets.
General Format
Author, A. (Year). Title of the slides or lecture notes [Description]. Brightspace. url
Hillman, C. (2019). Including a librarian in the online classroom [PowerPoint slides]. Brightspace.
  • To cite slides or notes from within your Brightspace course, use the URL for the Fisher Brightspace login page.
  • The author is the professor, or the creator of the slides.
General Format: Album
Artist. (Year). Title of the album [Album]. Label.
The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Heart Club's Band [Album]. Capitol.
General Format: Individual Song
Artist. (Year). Title of the song [Song]. Label.
Example of Individual Song
Pentatonix. (2015). Na na na [Song]. On Pentatonix. RCA.
  • For individual songs, include the name of the album: On Pentatonix.
  • You do not need to provide information about how you listened to the album (eg. on Spotify, on Pandora, or on CD).
  • Include the URL if the album is available only online at that location (eg. an artist's website).
  • Classical albums and tracks have different rules. See APA Style Guide section 10.13.
General Format
Speaker/Interviewee, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of speech or interview [Description]. Source such as the website or online archive. url
Tweed Bell, N. (2019, September 7). Christena Pyle and Neisha Tweed Bell [Interview]. StoryCorps Archive.
Chisholm, S. (1969, April 21). Speech at Howard University [Speech audio recording]. American RadioWorks.
  • For interviews, name the interviewee as the author.